Paper on Cyborgs

NEURAL CONTROLS  -  CYBORG  - The future man !!

Neural control/interfacing/interaction is a powerful means, which can develop a robust bridge between humans and machines. In this paper we emphasize on neural interfacing as an evolving trend in wireless communications by taking into account one of its important application i.e. cyborgs. A cyborg is a cybernetic organism (i.e. an organism that is a self-regulating integration of artificial and natural systems). In the next half of the paper we discuss the operational features of cyborgs.In an attempt to promote greater interaction between humans and computers, companies that develop (cybernetic) robotics technologies participate in a variety of seductive strategies that embody the cyborg discourse. Some of these strategies persuade individuals to concede to particular philosophies, such as the argument that technical artifacts and instrumental reasoning are necessary for effective social development. With the experiments conducted and  proposed  to  be  conducted  in  future  and  in  the process give a brief description of the advantages and  disadvantages of this  technology.

Attachments and interfaces mediate our interaction with the environment and usually are positioned on the surface of the body.  Physical objects would be called tools or attachments, while information utilities would be called interfaces. In the same way a neural interface allows human brain communicate directly with a computer, without any other equipment. That kind of interface allows any illusions to be inputted to human nervous system. Neural interfacing fantasies have mainly grown out of science fiction.
          A recent article on neural interfacing in the IEEE Transactions reports that   "a Microelectrode array capable of recording   from and   stimulating peripheral nerves at Prolonged intervals after surgical implantation has been demonstrated." These tiny silicon-based    arrays were implanted into the peroneal nerves of rats and remained operative   for up to 13 months .The ingeniously   designed chip is placed in the pathway of the surgically severed nerve. The regenerating nerve grows through a matrix of holes in the chip, while the regenerating tissue surrounding it anchors the device in place. This chip   receives the signals from the   surrounding   nerves and sends it to a computer through a wireless medium. Within several decades, active versions of these   chips could provide a direct neural interface with prosthetic limbs, and by extension, a direct human-computer interface. This human computer interface may now lead to a revolutionary organism called as “cyborg”, which was thought of as a science -fiction earlier.
What is cyborg?
A cyborg is Part human and part machine(robot), a hybrid of neurons and wires or circuits. It is a human being artificially transformed into a machine by providing a proper interface between man and computer. And Cyborg means “Cyber Organism”.

What is Neural Interfacing?
The Society for Neural interfacing (SNI) actively promotes research on innovative approaches dedicated to Neural Interfacing (NIF). Evaluating current technology and its intrinsic limitations it is possible to outline an almost perfect Neural Interfacing technology, however, predictions are largely based on current visions and one's imagination. Thus, the content of this site is expected to be up dated on a regular basis. NIF techniques with the potential of significantly improving current electrophysiological approaches should exhibit the following features:
·               Non-invasive communication with the neural tissue
·               No harming side effects
·               Spatial resolution in the range of micro- or nanometers in order to specifically target individual neuritis.
·               Temporal resolution at the millisecond level in order to capture neural processes
·               Real-time data acquisition and processing
           An interesting concept that may ultimately unify the requirements listed is the communication with neural tissue by means of electromagnetic fields. An ideal NIF technology would enable the real-time visualization of thoughts. A related concept was employed in the movie "Minority Report" (see below).

Scene from the movie "Minority Report": Thoughts and thus neural activity is directly visualized by means of optic scanning of the brain. Depicted are three muses whose thoughts are directly visualized on a screen. (Please note, that NIF has nothing to do with predicting no future or action elements as entertained in the movie mentioned.

Operational and architectural features of cyborg:
A silicon chip is implanted into any part of the body especially the region where most of the nerves are interconnected, and send and receive the electronic impulses. This silicon chip is designed in such a way that it can receive the nerve signals, amplify them  and  encode  the  signal  into  digital format by  which  proper computer accessibility is provided. Since no wires are preferred to interconnect the cyborg and computer a wireless communication path is preferred. This implant is encased in a glass tube. One contains the power supply, a copper coil energized by respect to the signals from the “Cyborg”. Radio waves to produce an electric current.  In the other end, three mini printed circuit boards will transmit and receive signals. The implant is connected to the body through a band that wraps around the nerve fibers and is linked by a very thin wire to the glass capsule. The chips in the implant will receive signals from the nerve fibers and send them to a computer instantaneously. For example, when a finger is moved, an electronic signal travels from the   brain to activate   the   muscles and tendons that operate the hand. These Nerve impulses will   still reach the finger. The signal from the implant will be analog, so it is to be converted into digital in order to store it in the computer.

            Still, several studies on work, organizational culture, computerized information systems (CIS), networks, and human-machine dyads (such as the "symbolic value of the CIS" or the "organizational symbolism" of computer
Culture) indicate the desire to explore, interpret, and reveal more than the efficiency of cyborgs and their supposed capability to undo the "problems" of late
industrial society .There is a desire to understand and to make meaning of the developing history of cyborgs, the development of their behavior and culture; the two interconnected through hands, wires and electronic mechanisms that bend the technological discourse towards cultural as well as digital ears.
Cyber Drugs:
Tiny Silicon chips implanted in the body could soon imitate the effects of heroin or cocaine. The technology opens up the nightmare prospect of drug barons controlling victims with message sent by Internet to home computers. The message would activate the chip and deliver sensations to the brain identical to those created by drugs and just as addictive.

Research project on cyborg:
          “This project is based on the experiment conducted by cyborg Steve Mann “
The silicon chip implant is inserted into the upper inside of the left arm, beneath the Inner layer of skin and on top of the muscle. And the device is   connected to the Nerve fibers in the left arm, positioned electronic impulses that   control dexterity, feeling, even e motions. This nerve center carries more   information than any other art of the anatomy, aside from the spine and   the   head   and   so is large and quite strong   This chip is made of receive the signals
from the nerve fibers and the signals are then transmitted to the computer. The computer is programmed to receive the signals, store them in a data base and
execute the tasks such as opening the doors switching on and off of lights and giving vocal messages to the cyborg depending on his loco motions and actions.

The fig. shows a blind man wearing A camera interfaced to nerve cells in brain to view images on Television artificially.

Experiments Proposed by cyborg Steve Mann:
As discussed earlier The chip in the implant will receive signals from the nerve fibers and send them to a computer instantaneously. For example, when we move a finger, an electronic
Signal   travels from the brain to activate the muscles and tendons that operate the hand. These Nerve impulses will reach the finger. The implanted silicon chip receives these nerve pulses and it sends the signal of impulses to a    computer through wireless path. The signal from the implant will be analog, so we'll have to convert it to   digital in order to store it in the computer. The computer receives the signal and sends it back to the implant. This ensures whether the same response of moving the finger will   be by sending same impulse signal to the implant. When we waggle the left index finger, it will send a corresponding signal via the implant to the computer; here it will be recorded and stored.  Next, we can transmit this signal to the implant, hoping to generate an action similar to the original. No processing will be done inside the implant. 
Rather, it will only send and receive signals, much like a telephone handset sends    and receives sound waves. It's true that onboard power would increase the options for programming more complex tasks into the implant, but that would require a much larger device. In  the  similar  way  experiments  are proposed  to be conducted to provide vision  to  blind  people. In this method a camera is made to have an interface with the implant.
This camera   captures   images  and  sends   them  to  the  silicon  chip  implant where  the  images  are  sent to the brain and processing takes place with this the image is seen by  the  blind person even without his  eyes.        



By using  this technology not only blind  people  can  be  assisted but it  may  also be possible to capture signals  responsible  for happiness, ,pain ,anesthesia etc .Experiments are also being conducted to establish wireless  communication  between  two  persons  by placing similar chips ,that  are  capable of  using  the  energy in the body and can transmit and receive impulse signals between them. If this experiment is proved to be possible then “cyborg”   which was assumed to be a science fiction is no more a distant dream. With this  technique  there  would  be  no  use  of  any  speech to communicate ,Just the impulses in the human   body   can   be   used   convey the   information   between  each other. Thought communication will   place telephones firmly in the history   books. Another Important application of cyborgs would be in curing diseases.  If this type of experiment works, we can    foresee    researchers    learning   to send antidepressant stimulation or even contraception  or   vaccines in  a   similar  manner.  With this we can gain a  potential to alter  the  whole  face  of  medicine,  to  abandon  the  concept of feeding people chemical treatments and cures and instead achieve the desired results electronically. Cyber drugs and cyber narcotics could very well cure cancer, relieve clinical depression.
Experiment conducted by other scientists:
In  an  experiment  conducted  by  team  at  Emory  University  in  Atlanta, which to great international interest has planted a transmitting device into the brain of a stroke patient. After the motor neurons were linked to silicon, the patient was able to move a cursor on a Computer monitor just by thinking about it.  That means thought signals were directly transmitted to a computer and used to operate it, albeit in a rudimentary way. The Emory team is looking to gradually extend the range of controls carried out.

If this technology comes into existence then a wide variety of advantages can be achieved the following description gives an overview of   advantages enjoyed   by    cyborgs. One  of  the  most  important  advantage  of  cyborg technology would be giving artificial sight  to  blind  people .

Fig showing a baby under gone a cyborg implantation.


But  they  should  be  provided   with   computer  aided   cameras. This technology would be implemented in almost all fields where human interaction is needed. for example consider a uranium plant or space research centre  which requires a wide variety of sensors to inform about special tasks .In these places human intervention is  highly  needed  because even if we use autonomous sensors  Sometimes problems may crawl in. By  using  cyborg  technology  this problem would be more simple because if we  interface humans with sensors then up to date information would be sent to the cyborg for instantaneous analysis of the status where ever he is. Even in medical field cyborgs would  be  of  great  use  because  any  disease  could  be  analyzed in terms of the neural impulse signals. This technology would be also used to establish intercommunication between two or peoples without using speech. It is assumed that wide area access between  any number  of  people  can  be  achieved  by  using  internet. This internet would substantially form a cyberspace establishing a community of cyborgs in the near future. In this way cyborgs may revolutionize the present technology and can be used in even more areas of the world.

Certainly, the military has already considered the  possibility  of  the  super-soldier, augmented  by  technology  so  that  he  has  faster reflexes,  deadlier  accuracy,  greater resistance to fatigue, integrated weaponry, and most importantly,  lesser  inclinations  toward  fear  or doubt in combat. Such soldiers could be created through combinations of biochemical, bioelectronics, and DNA manipulation, which is already a great success. They might have available arsenals of new biological warfare components, synthetically generated within their own bodies

Negative consequences:
The critics of bioelectronics and bio computing foresee numerous potential negative social consequences from the technology. One is that the human race will divide along the lines of biological haves and have-nots.  People with enough money will be able to augment their personal attributes as they see fit, while the majority of humanity will continue to suffer from plague, hunger. It's inevitable that there will be those who see the potential of a sort of master race from this technology. Certainly, the military has already considered the  possibility  of  the  super-soldier,  augmented  by  technology  so  that  he  has  faster reflexes,  deadlier  accuracy,  greater resistance to fatigue, integrated weaponry, and most importantly,  lesser  inclinations  toward  fear  or doubt in combat. Such soldiers could be created   through combinations of biochemical, bioelectronics, and DNA manipulation, which is already a great success.  They might have available arsenals of new biological warfare components, synthetically generated within their own bodies. But it's not clear that these 'cyborgs' would not turn on their creators. Indeed, there's no reason at all to think  they  would  forever  allow  themselves  to  be  controlled  by inferiors. They could easily become a new sort of dominant caste, forcing the rest of untechnologized humanity into serfdom. Or perhaps they might decide simply to eliminate it.
  For that reason, it's logical to suspect that one of the other dangers inherent in bioelectronics might be the ability to control and monitor people. Certainly, it would be easy to utilize bio-implants that would allow people to trace the location and perhaps even monitor the condition and behavior.
This would be a tremendous violation of human privacy, but the creators of human biotech might see it as necessary to keep their subjects Under control.  Once  implanted  with  bio-implant electronic devices,   'cyborgs'  might become highly  dependent  on the creators of these devices for their repair, recharge, and maintenance,  thus   placing  them  under  the  absolute  control  of  the  designers  of   the technology.  Perhaps  the most  cogent  arguments against this technology originate from people  who  foresee  tremendous  possible  risks  toward human health and safety. In this way cyborgs may lead many adverse consequences as predicted by the critics.

Though  bioelectronics  has  many  advantages it may lead to negative arguments with the Invention of  biological  machines  called “Cyborgs”.  As many scientists have eloquently argued, once a  technology    is  out there, you cannot make it go away. There never was a technology  that  the human  race  ever abandoned wholesale, even the hydrogen bomb or other  weapons   of   mass  destruction  with
the power to wipe out all life on Earth. When human  beings  are  offered the  chance  to  utilize  computers and electronic technologies within  their  bodies  to  achieve  the same results, it is almost certain they will embrace them  regardless  of  the  risks.  Based  on  this, it would be unrealistic to try and ban such technologies,   however  one  might  worry about their ethical and social consequences. A ban would only probably force them into a large, criminal black market, as illegal drugs and  weapons  already  have  been.  It  is probably imperative for society to assert that the scientists  and  engineers  charged  with  creating  this  new  technology  exert  the  proper amount of  social  responsibility. 

Safeguards  will  have  to  be  insisted on to prevent the possible negative impacts discussed above, and many of these things will have to be built in  at  the  instrumental level, since they probably cannot be achieved only through policy and regulation.


* Crichton, M. (1990).  Jurassic park.  New York:  Knopf.


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