NEURAL CONTROLS - CYBORG - The future man !!
Neural control/interfacing/interaction is a powerful means, which can develop a robust bridge between humans and machines. In this paper we emphasize on neural interfacing as an evolving trend in wireless communications by taking into account one of its important application i.e. cyborgs. A cyborg is a cybernetic organism (i.e. an organism that is a self-regulating integration of artificial and natural systems). In the next half of the paper we discuss the operational features of cyborgs.In an attempt to promote greater interaction between humans and computers, companies that develop (cybernetic) robotics technologies participate in a variety of seductive strategies that embody the cyborg discourse. Some of these strategies persuade individuals to concede to particular philosophies, such as the argument that technical artifacts and instrumental reasoning are necessary for effective social development. With the experiments conducted and proposed to be conducted in future and in the process give a brief description of the advantages and disadvantages of this technology.
Attachments and interfaces mediate our interaction with the environment and usually are positioned on the surface of the body. Physical objects would be called tools or attachments, while information utilities would be called interfaces. In the same way a neural interface allows human brain communicate directly with a computer, without any other equipment. That kind of interface allows any illusions to be inputted to human nervous system. Neural interfacing fantasies have mainly grown out of science fiction.
A recent article on neural interfacing in the IEEE Transactions reports that "a Microelectrode array capable of recording from and stimulating peripheral nerves at Prolonged intervals after surgical implantation has been demonstrated." These tiny silicon-based arrays were implanted into the peroneal nerves of rats and remained operative for up to 13 months .The ingeniously designed chip is placed in the pathway of the surgically severed nerve. The regenerating nerve grows through a matrix of holes in the chip, while the regenerating tissue surrounding it anchors the device in place. This chip receives the signals from the surrounding nerves and sends it to a computer through a wireless medium. Within several decades, active versions of these chips could provide a direct neural interface with prosthetic limbs, and by extension, a direct human-computer interface. This human computer interface may now lead to a revolutionary organism called as “cyborg”, which was thought of as a science -fiction earlier.
What is cyborg?
A cyborg is Part human and part machine(robot), a hybrid of neurons and wires or circuits. It is a human being artificially transformed into a machine by providing a proper interface between man and computer. And Cyborg means “Cyber Organism”.
What is Neural Interfacing?
The Society for Neural interfacing (SNI) actively promotes research on innovative approaches dedicated to Neural Interfacing (NIF). Evaluating current technology and its intrinsic limitations it is possible to outline an almost perfect Neural Interfacing technology, however, predictions are largely based on current visions and one's imagination. Thus, the content of this site is expected to be up dated on a regular basis. NIF techniques with the potential of significantly improving current electrophysiological approaches should exhibit the following features:
· Non-invasive communication with the neural tissue
· No harming side effects
· Spatial resolution in the range of micro- or nanometers in order to specifically target individual neuritis.
· Temporal resolution at the millisecond level in order to capture neural processes
· Real-time data acquisition and processing
An interesting concept that may ultimately unify the requirements listed is the communication with neural tissue by means of electromagnetic fields. An ideal NIF technology would enable the real-time visualization of thoughts. A related concept was employed in the movie "Minority Report" (see below).
Scene from the movie "Minority Report": Thoughts and thus neural activity is directly visualized by means of optic scanning of the brain. Depicted are three muses whose thoughts are directly visualized on a screen. (Please note, that NIF has nothing to do with predicting no future or action elements as entertained in the movie mentioned.
Operational and architectural features of cyborg:
A silicon chip is implanted into any part of the body especially the region where most of the nerves are interconnected, and send and receive the electronic impulses. This silicon chip is designed in such a way that it can receive the nerve signals, amplify them and encode the signal into digital format by which proper computer accessibility is provided. Since no wires are preferred to interconnect the cyborg and computer a wireless communication path is preferred. This implant is encased in a glass tube. One contains the power supply, a copper coil energized by respect to the signals from the “Cyborg”. Radio waves to produce an electric current. In the other end, three mini printed circuit boards will transmit and receive signals. The implant is connected to the body through a band that wraps around the nerve fibers and is linked by a very thin wire to the glass capsule. The chips in the implant will receive signals from the nerve fibers and send them to a computer instantaneously. For example, when a finger is moved, an electronic signal travels from the brain to activate the muscles and tendons that operate the hand. These Nerve impulses will still reach the finger. The signal from the implant will be analog, so it is to be converted into digital in order to store it in the computer.
Still, several studies on work, organizational culture, computerized information systems (CIS), networks, and human-machine dyads (such as the "symbolic value of the CIS" or the "organizational symbolism" of computer
Culture) indicate the desire to explore, interpret, and reveal more than the efficiency of cyborgs and their supposed capability to undo the "problems" of late
industrial society .There is a desire to understand and to make meaning of the developing history of cyborgs, the development of their behavior and culture; the two interconnected through hands, wires and electronic mechanisms that bend the technological discourse towards cultural as well as digital ears.
Tiny Silicon chips implanted in the body could soon imitate the effects of heroin or cocaine. The technology opens up the nightmare prospect of drug barons controlling victims with message sent by Internet to home computers. The message would activate the chip and deliver sensations to the brain identical to those created by drugs and just as addictive.
Research project on cyborg:
“This project is based on the experiment conducted by cyborg Steve Mann “
The silicon chip implant is inserted into the upper inside of the left arm, beneath the Inner layer of skin and on top of the muscle. And the device is connected to the Nerve fibers in the left arm, positioned electronic impulses that control dexterity, feeling, even e motions. This nerve center carries more information than any other art of the anatomy, aside from the spine and the head and so is large and quite strong This chip is made of receive the signals
from the nerve fibers and the signals are then transmitted to the computer. The computer is programmed to receive the signals, store them in a data base and
execute the tasks such as opening the doors switching on and off of lights and giving vocal messages to the cyborg depending on his loco motions and actions.
The fig. shows a blind man wearing A camera interfaced to nerve cells in brain to view images on Television artificially.
Experiments Proposed by cyborg Steve Mann:
As discussed earlier The chip in the implant will receive signals from the nerve fibers and send them to a computer instantaneously. For example, when we move a finger, an electronic
Signal travels from the brain to activate the muscles and tendons that operate the hand. These Nerve impulses will reach the finger. The implanted silicon chip receives these nerve pulses and it sends the signal of impulses to a computer through wireless path. The signal from the implant will be analog, so we'll have to convert it to digital in order to store it in the computer. The computer receives the signal and sends it back to the implant. This ensures whether the same response of moving the finger will be by sending same impulse signal to the implant. When we waggle the left index finger, it will send a corresponding signal via the implant to the computer; here it will be recorded and stored. Next, we can transmit this signal to the implant, hoping to generate an action similar to the original. No processing will be done inside the implant.
Rather, it will only send and receive signals, much like a telephone handset sends and receives sound waves. It's true that onboard power would increase the options for programming more complex tasks into the implant, but that would require a much larger device. In the similar way experiments are proposed to be conducted to provide vision to blind people. In this method a camera is made to have an interface with the implant.
This camera captures images and sends them to the silicon chip implant where the images are sent to the brain and processing takes place with this the image is seen by the blind person even without his eyes.
By using this technology not only blind people can be assisted but it may also be possible to capture signals responsible for happiness, ,pain ,anesthesia etc .Experiments are also being conducted to establish wireless communication between two persons by placing similar chips ,that are capable of using the energy in the body and can transmit and receive impulse signals between them. If this experiment is proved to be possible then “cyborg” which was assumed to be a science fiction is no more a distant dream. With this technique there would be no use of any speech to communicate ,Just the impulses in the human body can be used convey the information between each other. Thought communication will place telephones firmly in the history books. Another Important application of cyborgs would be in curing diseases. If this type of experiment works, we can foresee researchers learning to send antidepressant stimulation or even contraception or vaccines in a similar manner. With this we can gain a potential to alter the whole face of medicine, to abandon the concept of feeding people chemical treatments and cures and instead achieve the desired results electronically. Cyber drugs and cyber narcotics could very well cure cancer, relieve clinical depression.
Experiment conducted by other scientists:
In an experiment conducted by team at Emory University in Atlanta, which to great international interest has planted a transmitting device into the brain of a stroke patient. After the motor neurons were linked to silicon, the patient was able to move a cursor on a Computer monitor just by thinking about it. That means thought signals were directly transmitted to a computer and used to operate it, albeit in a rudimentary way. The Emory team is looking to gradually extend the range of controls carried out.
If this technology comes into existence then a wide variety of advantages can be achieved the following description gives an overview of advantages enjoyed by cyborgs. One of the most important advantage of cyborg technology would be giving artificial sight to blind people .
Fig showing a baby under gone a cyborg implantation.
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TWO CYBORGS:
But they should be provided with computer aided cameras. This technology would be implemented in almost all fields where human interaction is needed. for example consider a uranium plant or space research centre which requires a wide variety of sensors to inform about special tasks .In these places human intervention is highly needed because even if we use autonomous sensors Sometimes problems may crawl in. By using cyborg technology this problem would be more simple because if we interface humans with sensors then up to date information would be sent to the cyborg for instantaneous analysis of the status where ever he is. Even in medical field cyborgs would be of great use because any disease could be analyzed in terms of the neural impulse signals. This technology would be also used to establish intercommunication between two or peoples without using speech. It is assumed that wide area access between any number of people can be achieved by using internet. This internet would substantially form a cyberspace establishing a community of cyborgs in the near future. In this way cyborgs may revolutionize the present technology and can be used in even more areas of the world.
Certainly, the military has already considered the possibility of the super-soldier, augmented by technology so that he has faster reflexes, deadlier accuracy, greater resistance to fatigue, integrated weaponry, and most importantly, lesser inclinations toward fear or doubt in combat. Such soldiers could be created through combinations of biochemical, bioelectronics, and DNA manipulation, which is already a great success. They might have available arsenals of new biological warfare components, synthetically generated within their own bodies
The critics of bioelectronics and bio computing foresee numerous potential negative social consequences from the technology. One is that the human race will divide along the lines of biological haves and have-nots. People with enough money will be able to augment their personal attributes as they see fit, while the majority of humanity will continue to suffer from plague, hunger. It's inevitable that there will be those who see the potential of a sort of master race from this technology. Certainly, the military has already considered the possibility of the super-soldier, augmented by technology so that he has faster reflexes, deadlier accuracy, greater resistance to fatigue, integrated weaponry, and most importantly, lesser inclinations toward fear or doubt in combat. Such soldiers could be created through combinations of biochemical, bioelectronics, and DNA manipulation, which is already a great success. They might have available arsenals of new biological warfare components, synthetically generated within their own bodies. But it's not clear that these 'cyborgs' would not turn on their creators. Indeed, there's no reason at all to think they would forever allow themselves to be controlled by inferiors. They could easily become a new sort of dominant caste, forcing the rest of untechnologized humanity into serfdom. Or perhaps they might decide simply to eliminate it.
For that reason, it's logical to suspect that one of the other dangers inherent in bioelectronics might be the ability to control and monitor people. Certainly, it would be easy to utilize bio-implants that would allow people to trace the location and perhaps even monitor the condition and behavior.
This would be a tremendous violation of human privacy, but the creators of human biotech might see it as necessary to keep their subjects Under control. Once implanted with bio-implant electronic devices, 'cyborgs' might become highly dependent on the creators of these devices for their repair, recharge, and maintenance, thus placing them under the absolute control of the designers of the technology. Perhaps the most cogent arguments against this technology originate from people who foresee tremendous possible risks toward human health and safety. In this way cyborgs may lead many adverse consequences as predicted by the critics.
Though bioelectronics has many advantages it may lead to negative arguments with the Invention of biological machines called “Cyborgs”. As many scientists have eloquently argued, once a technology is out there, you cannot make it go away. There never was a technology that the human race ever abandoned wholesale, even the hydrogen bomb or other weapons of mass destruction with
the power to wipe out all life on Earth. When human beings are offered the chance to utilize computers and electronic technologies within their bodies to achieve the same results, it is almost certain they will embrace them regardless of the risks. Based on this, it would be unrealistic to try and ban such technologies, however one might worry about their ethical and social consequences. A ban would only probably force them into a large, criminal black market, as illegal drugs and weapons already have been. It is probably imperative for society to assert that the scientists and engineers charged with creating this new technology exert the proper amount of social responsibility.
Safeguards will have to be insisted on to prevent the possible negative impacts discussed above, and many of these things will have to be built in at the instrumental level, since they probably cannot be achieved only through policy and regulation.
* Crichton, M. (1990). Jurassic park. New York: Knopf.